What is it in our distant past that made the ancients behold it with such impressiveness? ExpeditionHistory.org

Who has not, at one time or another, wondered “where do we come from”?

It is human nature to wonder about our nature, our origins, or place on the big blue and green ball called Earth.  Has any one period, society or station in history held the monopoly on providing the answer to “who are we” or “why are we”?


The following is an article written on December 13th, 2014 by Zakaria Bziker.  Zakaria is a student at Ibn-Tofail University (Kenitra, Morocco), currently pursuing a master’s degree in Education. He obtained his bachelor’s degree in General Linguistics and something in his writing, and or questioning, stirred me and I am presenting his work here on our blog.  We will only take you part of the way, and then you can clock on and go on to read the “rest of the story” as they say.

Kenitra – “Why should we be so arrogant as to assume that we’re the first homo-sapiens to walk the earth?” (J.J. Abrams et al., 2010)

No one remembers one’s moment of birth and neither does humanity. The beginning of man is a scientific mystery. This article, however, is not about how man came to be, but about shortly after that; it is about the dawn of humanity, a missing chapter in human history. People, in this forgotten chapter, mapped the earth and sky long before there were ancient Egyptians or Jews. They are not to be confused with Australopithecus, Homo Habilis, or Homo Ergaster. Instead, they are remembered by ancients as ‘gods’ because it is they who first engineered societies, leaving baffling traces on earth.

The idea of how humanity’s progress began is relative. Before the enlightenment, human civilizations throughout history viewed the past as glorious and expected the future to simply resemble and repeat the past. Mankind did not think highly of themselves until after Kant declared the motto “Sapere aude,” – dare to think for yourself. But the question remains: what is it in our distant past that made the ancients behold it with such impressiveness?

Scientific and technological progresses do not necessarily take thousands of years. The pace can be exponential, slow, or even regressive – exponential through accidental breakthroughs and inventions, e.g. the 20th century, but slow when impeded by a major force such as the Roman church or the Black Death that prolonged the dark ages for a century. Regression occurs due to a massive loss of knowledge, e.g. the burning of the Alexandria Library in 391 A.D. The idea that scientific and technological development takes millennia is an impression that we get from our assessment of the known history. Progress is inevitable and desirable for any civilization.

David-Vs-Goliath_crop_exactThe progress of science and technology changes the way we live presently as well as how we see the past and future. Our expectations of the future change based partly on the breakthroughs we make and the pace of the scientific development. Our visions of the past, too, change as we develop new ways of investigating facts. The current worldview of the past is that things were primitive, and that mankind emerged from a state of barbarism to become smarter and more capable. However, emerging evidence suggests otherwise beginning with Plato’s account of Atlantis, although, across the past two millennia, his account was considered fictional. In 1882, U.S. Congressman Ignatius Loyola Donnelly published his book ‘Atlantis: The Antediluvian World’ in which he gathers the then-available evidence in favor of an early mighty civilization that was far more advanced than they had any right to be. He mainly studied ancient myths and believed Plato’s account of Atlantis to be historically accurate.pob_fig005b

Forty-seven years later, in 1929, a medieval map called Piri Reis was found at the Imperial Palace library in Constantinople (Istanbul). This map inexplicably depicts, with unprecedented fine details, the continents of South America and Antarctica corresponding to present longitude and latitude albeit it dates back to 1513. It was not until after the Piri Reis map discovery that other maps of high precision started emerging, eg: the Ribero maps 1520-30, the Ortelius map 1570, and the Wright-Molyneux map 1599 (McIntosh, 2000:59).

The Piri Reis map was thought to have been based on Columbus’ explorations, though he never surveyed South America. Later, Charles Hapgood studied the map intensively and concluded that a remote and advanced civilization had existed and mapped the unexplored parts of the world before Columbus’ time (Hapgood, 1966). Hapgood’s unorthodox theory of earth crustal displacement also accounts for a preexistent civilized culture in Antarctica. Albert Einstein found that Hapgood’s ideas had scientific worth (Einstein, 1953).

Years later in 1978, Brad Steiger’s book ‘Worlds Before Our Own’ rekindled the issue of past advanced societies. Steiger studied the OPA (out-of-place artifacts) to support his theory which challenged the well-accepted idea that if humans were primitive in the past, common sense then says the deeper one digs down into the earth the more un-advanced artifacts one finds. What he actually found was that some advanced human artifacts are located in the lowest primordial geologic strata whereas primitive ones are located in upper strata (thus labeled Out-of-Place Artifacts). He also presented evidence that strongly suggests the cohabitation of dinosaurs and humans. Steiger’s unconventional book fueled other subsequent works such as Dead Men’s Secrets (1986), Forbidden Archaeology (1993), The Orion Mystery (1993), Fingerprints of the Gods (1995), and Technology of the Gods (1999). But, Steiger’s book was also met with a great deal of criticism.

Today, theories such as Steiger’s, along with supporting evidence, call into question the current worldview of the first people. When one subscribes to this unconventional and unaccepted theory of history, one is then driven to speculate two possible past events that put an end to these historical societies. Either they were so advanced that they destroyed themselves, or they were destroyed by a global cataclysm from which a few survived. The first case seems less probable than the second although there might be some clues that imply ancient warfare.

“When the first atomic bomb exploded in New Mexico, the desert sand turned to fused green glass. This fact, according to the magazine Free World, has given certain archaeologists a turn. They have been digging in the ancient Euphrates Valley and have uncovered a layer of agrarian culture 8,000 years old, and a layer of herdsman culture much older, and a still older caveman culture. Recently, they reached another layer, a layer of fused green glass” (New York Herald Tribune, 1947)

worldsbeforeourownThe assumption of uniformitarianism makes scientists attribute the current features of the earth surface to a slow process that took millions of years. The alternative view however suggests that these features are the result of a worldwide cataclysm that took place mere thousands of years ago. In this regard, three pieces of evidence in favor of the past cataclysm will be discussed.

First, we have the problem of the carbon dating method. Most geologists use carbon dating to determine the age of fossils and geologic strata. The reliability of this method requires a balance between the forming and decaying of radioactive carbon that has been maintaining its equilibrium for millions of years in earth’s atmosphere. However, carbon’s forming and decaying has not even yet reached equilibrium on earth for the amount of C14 that is being produced is greater than that which is being decayed. As a result, we cannot use today’s C14 ratio (0.0000765%) in the atmosphere as a benchmark to measure the presence of C14 in ancient fossils. Plus, it is hopeless to correlate earth’s epochs with the geologic column since the latter is based on fiction (Huse, 1983:15; Smith, 2012:242). Vertical petrified trees are the whistleblower that exposes the invalidity of the geologic column. Many petrified trees running across multiple geological strata have been observed in nature which could only suggest that these strata formed in a short period of time, a result of a rapid cataclysmal sedimentation for example, but not millions of years (Harold 1969; 1971, Rupke, N.A, 1970).

Secondly, there is scientific evidence of a past near-extinction event, also known as population bottleneck event. The two researchers William Amos and J.I. Hoffman from University of Cambridge found genetic evidence for a sudden and drastic decline of the world population to a very small number of people thousands of years ago (Amos & Hoffman, 2010:131-7). This is speculated to be caused by a worldwide cataclysm.

Third, there are stunning similarities among several ancient myths and legends of different people across the globe on the event of a past global catastrophe, more specifically a global flood similar to the one mentioned in both Biblical and Qur’anic accounts. Some of these myths are Sumerian creation myth (ca. 1600 B.C.), Ancient Greek flood myths, ancient myths of Kwaya, Mbuti, Maasai, Mandin, and Yoruba people in Africa, Yu the Great (ca. 2200 B.C.) and Nüwa in China, Tiddalik in Australia, Hopi mythology in North America, Unu Pachakuti myth of the Incas in South America and this is not the end of the list for there are more than 500 ancient deluge legends (Cox, 1997:198; Dey, 2012: 112; Wohl, 2000:273; LaViolette, 2005: 235). These myths are traces of a global collective memory referring to an actual event in the distant past.


Secret Codes Hidden in Ancient Books- Do They Really Exist? Curse of Oak Island ExpeditionHistory.org

Ever since the release of modern mega-best-sellers such as Dan Brown’s “The DaVinci Code” the art, hobby and discipline of finding and cracking ancient codes buried in long forgotten texts has become a popular pastime.

But do such mystical codes really exist? http://solomonssecret.org


If you were to skim headlines of various news sources here is what you would find:

  • British scientist uncovers ‘secret messages’ hidden in Plato’s ancient text – SNIP: “His works have been scrutinized and debated for more than 2,000 years by the greatest minds in history. But it turns out the Greek philosopher Plato still has a few surprises up his sleeve. In an extraordinary discovery, a British academic claims to have uncovered a series of secret messages hidden in some of the most influential and celebrating writings of the Ancient World. The codes suggest that Plato was a secret follower of the philosopher Pythagoras and shared his belief that the secrets to the universe lie in numbers and various maths.
  • Hidden Messages and The Bible Code – “Journalist Michael Drosnin, who claims that the Hebrew Bible contains a very complex code that reveals events that took place thousands of years after the Bible was written. Drosnin contends that some foretold events later happened exactly as predicted.”
  • Shakespeare’s Secrets: A Hidden Cipher in Literature’s Greatest Works? – “William Shakespeare has for centuries been considered one of the greatest literary figures of all time, but a secret cipher hidden within the very pages of his plays may tell an exceedingly different story, one of forbidden marriages, a forgotten prince, and most of all, the genius of one man: Francis Bacon. Born in sixteenth century England, Sir Francis Bacon was not only Lord Chancellor of England under James I, but was also a brilliant philosopher (British Broadcasting Company, 2012). Though not appreciated in his time, one of Bacon’s greatest achievements was a simple cipher he incorporated in his written works called the Baconian cipher (Sherman, 2010). The Baconian cipher does not possess great strength against decryption; instead its immense power and intrigue resides in its ability to make mystery lie, or appear to lie, in everything.”

If you are one of the weekly millions of fans who tune into “The Curse of Oak Island” you know my online friend Petter Amundsen has authored a book and theory about the works of Shakespeare and the theory they may be what lay buried beneath Oak Island.



Here is a bit about Petter an interview website: Petter Amundsen is an organist, a Freemason and co-author of the book Organisten (The Organist). Since 2002 he has decrypted a number of steganographic ciphers believed to be hidden in several first editions of William Shakespeare and Sir Francis Bacon’s books. In 2003 Amundsen excavated two sites at the legendary Treasure Island – Oak Island in Nova Scotia, Canada. His findings didn’t go unnoticed as it attracted media attention and amazed many in the local community, among them landowner Dan Blankenship. In 2009, he was featured in a four episode TV series, Shakespeares skjulte koder (Shakespeare: The Hidden Codes) which broadcasted on Norwegian TV channel NRK1. In 2012 Amundsen published his second book, Oak Island & The Treasure Map in Shakespeare. In late April 2012 his full feature documentary “Shakespeare: The Hidden Truth” was released in Norwegian cinemas. In 2014, he was featured in an episode of History Channel’s The Curse of Oak Island. In the first hour, Petter tells how he came to find secret messages in Shakespeare and how he learned to decrypt them. He’ll discuss key elements and symbolism. We’ll also discuss the controversy surrounding the authorship of Shakespeare, Francis Bacon, the Rosicrucians and how the ciphers lead to Oak Island in Canada. In the second hour, Petter explains how freemasonry helped him to decipher this mystery. He’ll speak more about Oak Island’s man made underground system, the finds, the excavations and its location, which is related to the constellation Cygnus. He’ll also talk about the lamp, or the menorah and the Ark of the Covenant.  (you can find or buy Petter’s Book here)


My personal answer: a powerfully delivered ABSOLUTELY YES!  But there are conditions!

There is always a but, isn’t there?  Yes there is and the “but” in this case it is the DOCUMENT you are using to decode your CODE with.  Recently, on Facebook I was challenged by a young “code and ancient cypher cracker”.  In commenting on my personal thoughts on “How to Find and Decode Ancient Codes in Lost Manuscripts” the comment expressed by me, is “most code cracking in literature is flawed, due to poor research results.  Not of the code and the Author, but of the PATH PUBLISHING TOOK.  Needless to say – online flame hell was unleashed calling me jaded and that was the nicest term used (no biggie, one gets used to it, when you live in a professional where scent and theory collide daily).

So what was my point in stating this.  The picture to follow – posted in an open public forum as a pice of “expert decoding: is what triggered the discussion.  Take a look at the photo:

decoding in texts


This photo was submitted as final proof of “code cracking abilities and the existence of a hidden code within an ancient published work”

Now, put your investigative eyes on and look very closely at BOTH the WORDS and the PHOTO ABOVE:  “codes within ancient published work”.

Go ahead, take your time, no rush at all – we are going to come back to this photo above, but to help you understand where I am headed with this and what it really takes to crack hidden codes within ancient works, lets look at the most logical ancient text, which happens to be the most commonly one used – The King James Version of The Holy Bible.


In the photo immediately above of the King James version of The Holy Bible, you are looking at as close to a original document as you could find or have access to without travel to the Holy Archives.

What do you notice about the wording, the style, the layout and the presentation?  Let’s rattle them off one-by-one:

  • Spelling of Words which are different than modern times
  • Non-columnized format with different spacing and indentation than modern times
  • Words which are no longer used in the Modern vocabulary

Why are these important?  Because the layout and many beginning and ending letters of words will be DIFFERENT in Ancient text side-by-side with modern text.

MY POINT:  Coding within texts (unless it is a modern book published with intentional codes) can only be properly decoded when using ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS and/or exact duplicates.

Now, lets go back to the photo which was first referenced (here below posted once again):  TO REPEAT: 

This photo was submitted as final proof of “code cracking abilities and the existence of a hidden code within an ancient published work”

Now, put your investigative eyes on and look very closely at BOTH the WORDS and the PHOTO ABOVE: “codes within ancient published work”.

decoding in texts


Here are the facts about the above photo:

The words are modern words of the ancient equivalents – therefore the coding cannot be accurate, but even more glaring?  Can you spot it?

The above photo, where the supposed secret code is revealed, is the CONTENTS PAGE.  The Table of Contents page.  NOTE TO RESEARCHERS:

In true ANCIENT TEXT there were NOT Table of Contents and Indexes – therefore by DEFAULT hidden codes cannot exists since the indexing (and in the case of above – columnized index) was never present in the original text and since it is in column SOLEY DECIDED BY THE PUBLISHER TO SAVE PAPER SIZE AND SPACE, how can the original author of have KNOWN this would occur a hundred years laters to these exact specifications?  There lay the pitfalls of hidden codes within published works.

This image may help further prove this point.  Remember, I said many people look for codes within The Holy Bible?  Well take a look here at a redlined copy of JUST ONE modern bible to the next and see the difference in what has been changed and deleted over time!

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The moral of this story?  The ONLY WAY TO DECODE code which are hidden within text – specifically ancient text, are to obtain or travel to study such ancient texts in the original published formats.

YES YES YES Hidden Codes are buried within ancient text, both in word and symbols.


UPDATE:  although I did not publish the name of the “author decoder” of the wisdom of the ancients” book page above, he has joined in the groups and claimed his work.  So you might be able to see how this type of decoding goes here is his decoding (along with how he now post all over my postings)  anyway, lets analyze : Screen Shot 2014-11-22 at 8.36.29 AM

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Now IF we follow this decoding logic, here is what we must assume:  The “positioning” of the letters in the document (see photo below) are what spells out what Mr. Gallagher decodes as “Ps” “Vino”  and so on.  Now personally I cannot follow the logic of how a letter, then transcodes to a word, then transcodes into a different word then transcode into a modern synonyms ?  And MOST of such synonyms are modern word creations which did not exists when the Author wrote the work?  So how can this be the original decoding?  Lookout the “decoded photo” once again:

decoding in texts

Now look at the original content page as formatted in an original republication dating many many years before the photo above:

Screen Shot 2014-11-22 at 8.51.50 AM

Notice what is key?  Different spacing, formatting, words, positioning and NO COLUMNS – thus which one could possible contain a hidden code?  A modern republished book where a publisher is trying to save space and paper (then how to the doodles on the page make the same formations??) or the Original works of the Author?  My experience tells me it is the original work which contains codes – hidden codes – IF THERE IS ANY HIDDEN CODE TO BE FOUND!.

POINT:  Always go back in time to the source material.


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Treasure Blaspheme or Boustrophedon Treasure? Curse of Oak Island and ExpeditionHistory.org

You know when something becomes a POP CULTURE phenomenon when people get into heated debates over the topic and people begin to have a full-on-vested-interest in the outcome of something or the way something is portrayed.

For me personally, I have ben sitting at my Mac for 6 hours straight trying to answer emails, message and social media questions regarding the “90 Foot Stone of Oak Island” {90 foot stone referring to the stone found at the 90 foot depth level of the Oak Island Money Pit}.



 This is the story and segment that created the stir (just a clip not the whole bit, visit History.com for that)

What is amazing me is just how “personal” people are taking the goings on with The Curse of Oak Island. The overwhelming majority feels as though Rick, Marty and Craig is their personal friend and they are rooting for them to win; and then there are a handful of others saying things like “grave robbers”, “looters” “fake and scripted TV”. Now there is no way to convince any serious and convicted “doubting Thomas” if they are intent on “ill words” and “falsehoods” or just “stirring the pot” BUT, one can comment on the real facts.

First and foremost, one is impressed when they stand back and look at the admirable measured patience with which Rick and Marty Lagina and Craig Tester display in getting to the bottom of this world gripping and current HOT ON TV mystery! As displayed in past Oak Island efforts, they are NOT ripping apart the island, but methodically searching for real clues, and real answers so they might become “convinced to dig” and uncover once-and-for-all the answer waiting below. The ONLY one sure thing about Oak Island is how thorough and professional it is being managed and handled by the Laginas.


Now for the “controversial soup de jour” – the “90 Foot Stone”, here are the facts:

  1. The stone is real and was cross confirmed by more individual eyewitness accounts than any other single artifact ever found on Oak Island, and;
  2. There were countless rubbings, drawings and recordation’s of this infamous stone made in the 1800’s and recorded with local archives and newspapers of the day.

But here are some facts even more important than the two above:

  • There is more than one stone with the same language
  • There are numerous locations around the Island, and;
  • The stone is 100% – yes 100% matched to an ancient language that was:
    • Thought to be extinct at one time, and;
    • Totally unknown and related to Canada, Nova Scotia of any North American languages

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Now for the complication:

  • The ancient language is boustrophedon in nature and orientation. This simply means – it is not read left to right as we currently do AND the discovery and original orientation MEAN EVERYTHING!

Wikipedia says this about boustrophedon writing (the links have been left connected and live):

Boustrophedon (/ˌbaʊstrɵˈfiːdən/ or /ˌbuːstroʊˈfiːdən/; from Greek βουστροφηδόν, boustrophēdon “ox-turning” from βοῦς, bous, “ox” and στροφή, strophē, “turn”; that is, turning like oxen in ploughing) is a kind of bi-directional text, mostly seen in ancient manuscripts and other inscriptions. Every other line of writing is flipped or reversed, with reversed letters. Rather than going left-to-right as in modern English, or right-to-left as in Arabic and Hebrew, alternate lines in boustrophedon must be read in opposite directions. Also, the individual characters are reversed, or mirrored.

The name “boustrophedon” is taken from the Greek language. Its etymology is from βούς, bous, “ox” + στρέφειν, strephein, “to turn” (cf. strophe), because the hand of the writer goes back and forth like an ox drawing a plough across a field and turning at the end of each row to return in the opposite direction (i.e., “as the ox ploughs”). It was a common way of writing in stone in Ancient Greece.

Many ancient scripts, such as Safaitic and Sabaean, were frequently or typically written boustrophedonically, but in Greek it is found most commonly in archaic inscriptions, becoming less and less popular throughout the Hellenistic period.

By analogy, the term may be used in other areas to describe this kind of alternation of motion or writing. For example, it is occasionally used to describe the print head motion of certain dot matrix computer printers. In that case, while the print head moves in opposite directions on alternate lines, the printed text is usually not in boustrophedon format.

The Egyptian language, represented with hieroglyph texts and wall reliefs, is the major hieroglyphic language from antiquity; the only other language that also had a hieroglyph version, was the Luwian language and its hieroglyphic Luwian, read boustrophedon; (most of the language was in cuneiform). Other languages that appear to have hieroglyphs are explained as glyphs that make up a language with “script characters” or sets, (with some characters that are virtually identical to varieties of hieroglyphs).

283px-Example_Boustrophedon_(Ancient_Greek).svgCurvy_boustrophedon_example_by_ndgmtlcdgreek boustrophedon


It is bad enough we have to “plow” through the decoding (pun intended) but with the original orientation unknown the decoding is about 39 to the 18th power of possible “decoding”, thus we have solicited help from the three best Universities in the world for solving this, so we make sure we present the one and only true decoding of the Oak Island 90 foot stone.

Alas, there is more much more to come and with last night’s episode airing, the local politicians were back on the local news. Watch for this to heat up.

As one fan and one “hater” online asked me in messages this morning: “Why are you against the government getting involved?” My answer?

“The Lagina’s as impeccable pros with incredible standards, ethics and solid practices. They want the history solved, the mystery solved and the World to know the truth.” I continued, “History shows, when local, state and federal governments gets involved and what is found is history changing, then – in almost every single instance the results are hidden way – if not forever, for half a century or more! Just look at the Dead Sea Scrolls”.

“Yes this is history shattering and mind bending, and when politics, traditions, entitlements, current thinking, degrees and history books collide with what is found, most of – if not all- of the findings end up in the proverbial “crate in the warehouse” just like in Indiana Jones!”

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As for me, my mind wants to EXPLODE with all that we know and can’t share yet. But, I for one DO NOT WANT my history – the World’s History locked away and never see the light of day! WHAT SAY YOU?









Ark of the Covenant and the ACTUAL Value of the GOLD in King Solomon’s Temple! ExpeditionHistory.org Curse of Oak Island

Ark-of-the-CovenantCurse of Oak Island is a huge TV hit and this weekend, in preparation for my reveal in episode three (History Channel – Tuesdays – 9pm EST – 8pm CST), it seemed a perfect time to discuss what exactly where the riches of King Solomon’s Temple.

Regardless of how you learned about King Solomon, we all learned he was incredibly wealthy, but do you know just how famously wealthy? Can you imagine the scale of what it takes to be mega-wealthy?

A good way to understand King Solomon’s wealth is to put it into today’s terms.

How much, in terms of today’s value of precious metals, would the treasures of Solomon’s Temple be worth today?

Let’s look at what the history books and records tell us.

During their wilderness wanderings the people of Israel received the Ten Commandments and detailed laws, regulations and instructions delivered to Moses on Mount Sinai. Moses was also instructed to construct a large portable tabernacle, or tent, entrusted to the care of the priests of Aaron. A detailed description of this tabernacle is given in Exodus 25-30. The Tabernacle was built by free-will offerings donated by the people in such generous amounts that more than enough materials were available.

The materials assembled for the tabernacle are described in detail in Exodus 35-38 and summarized in Exodus 38:21-30. The total quantity of gold collected was approximately one ton; of silver, 3-3/4 tons; and of bronze, 2-1/2 tons.

At today’s prices gold is approximately $1190 per troy ounce, or $14,280 per pound (12 troy ounces), or $28,560,000 per ton. Silver currently is priced around $16.50 per troy ounce, or $198 per pound, which is $396,000 per ton. Hence, the gold and silver used in the Tabernacle of Moses would be worth over $28.6 million today. Exodus 12:35 states that the Egyptians gave the Jews gold, silver, and ornaments at the time of the departure from Egypt. The golden lampstand in the tabernacle weighed a talent and would today be worth a $1,570,800 for its gold alone.

Judgement_of_SolomonThe Old Testament gives some details about the movement of the tabernacle, Ark, and holy vessels after the conquest. The Ark of Covenant was located at Shiloh for many years presumably in a house, tent, or temple constructed for it there (Judges 18:31, I Samuel 1:39, 3:3; Judges 21:19). At some later period the Ark was moved to Bethel on the Benjamite border during the war with Gibeah (Judges 20:26-27). The Philistines then held the Ark for seven months.

After being recaptured it was located for 20 years at Kiriath-jearim. King Saul generally neglected the Ark (I Chronicles 13:3) but David brought it to Jerusalem about 1003 BC (II Samuel 6; I Chronicles 13:15). The Ark was given temporary shelter in Jerusalem before being installed in the first temple built by King David’s son, the illustrious Solomon.  Despite a temporary removal by apostate king Manasseh, (II Chronicles 33:7; 35:3), the Ark is thought by many to have remained in the holy of holies of the first temple until the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 B. C. by Nebuchadnezzar. The post-exilic temple apparently contained no Ark, according to Josephus (The Wars of the Jews, Book Five). The apocryphal book of II Maccabees (2:1-8) says that the prophet Jeremiah hid the Ark and the golden altar of incense in a cave on Mt. Nebo before the Babylonian exile. Jeremiah was taken to Tahpanhes in Egypt by a remnant of the Jews after the fall of Jerusalem (Jeremiah 42:1-43:7), so it is conceivable that he secured the Ark in secret location associated with his journey and his help by the Egyptians.

oak island reach memeWhen Solomon moved the Ark from the city of David to the first temple, it is said most or all of the holy vessels of gold and silver from the tabernacle were with the Ark. (I Kings 8:4). Although David desired to build a permanent house of God in Jerusalem, his son Solomon built the first temple.  The plans were those of David, and David amassed the materials (I Chronicles 28:1-19; II Chronicles 2-4; I Kings 6-7). These materials included 100,000 talents – or 11 million pounds of gold and 1,000,000 talents – or 110,000,000 pounds of silver, (I Chron. 29).

Maybe easier understood, that’s $157,080,000,000 in gold in todays value (you would say the number as one hundred fifty-seven billion eighty million dollars). In silver the numbers above would represent, $21,780,000,000(you would say this number as: twenty-one billion seven hundred eighty million dollars).

So today’s total value of the raw materials would be $178 billion, 860 million!

So you have some scale to compare to, this equals more than the Gross National Product from countries 52 in the world all the way to the last listing which is country #194. Here take a peek (the numbers are in the millions):

51  Kuwait 183,219
52  Ukraine 176,309
53  New Zealand 171,256
54  Romania 169,396
55  Vietnam 155,820
56  Iraq 149,370
57  Bangladesh 127,195
58  Hungary 124,600
59  Angola 116,308
60  Puerto Rico 103,516
191  Marshall Islands 198
192  Kiribati 176
193  Nauru 121
 Montserrat 64
194  Tuvalu 40


However there was even more to the value of what would have been the Temple Treasures. From his own private fortune David also gave 3,000 talents of gold and 7,000 talents of high-grade silver.  In addition to all the gold and silver, great quantities of bronze, cedar, iron, and precious stones were contributed. The most holy place of Solomon’s temple was lined with cedar from Lebanon and covered with 600 talents of gold (66,000 pounds of gold or $942,480,000 worth of gold) 792,000 troy ounces.   During this period of Israel’s history, Solomon’s income was 666 talents of gold per annum or about 73,260 pounds or 879,120 troy ounces, worth $1,046,152,800 (one billion forty-six million one hundred fifty-two thousand eight hundred dollars).  It is interesting to note reports, which state that during the reign of Solomon “silver was as common as stone” in Jerusalem, (I Kings 10:27). Solomon made 200 massive shields each 300 shekels in weight to hang on the walls of his palace. His ivory throne was overlaid with gold. “So King Solomon exceeded all the kings of the earth in riches and wisdom” (II Kings 10:23).

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The splendor of Solomon’s kingdom brought him recognition and fame that attracted much foreign attention. For example, during her visit “to test Solomon with hard questions” the Queen of Sheba brought Solomon 120 talents of gold (13,200 pounds or 158,400 troy ounces or $188,496,000, – one hundred eighty-eight million four hundred ninety-six thousand dollars) “and a very great store of spices and precious stones,” (I Kings 10; II Chronicles 9).

A cube of gold weighing 3750 tons would measure about 6 meters (19.68 ft.) on a side, and 37,500 tons of silver in a single cube would be about 16 meters (52.48 ft.) on a side.  To get an estimate of the current Gold Reserves and how they compare to the wealth of King Solomon and the First Temple, here is a snapshot of the Top 10 gold “holding” countries.

Rank Country/Organization Gold holdings(in tonnes)
1  United States 8,133.5
2  Germany 3,384.2
3 International Monetary Fund 2,814.0
4  Italy 2,451.8
5  France 2,435.4
6  Russia 1,149.8[12]
7  China 1,054.1
8   Switzerland 1,040.0
9  Japan 765.2
10  Netherlands 612.5

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Easier to understand the weight of gold is to know the US Gold Reserves would fit inside a 50-foot by 50-foot crate. German reserves would fit in a 20-foot by 20-foot box and for dramatic comparison, the Gold reserves of japan would fit inside a crate less than 4-foot by 4-foot in size!  The temple of Solomon required 7-1/2 years to construct and the efforts of about 180,000 laborers, (I Kings 7:13, 5:6, 13, 14; II Chronicles 2:17-18). Great quantities of local stone and imported cedar wood were used. The wealth of the first temple was immediately plundered after the death of Solomon.

The fall of Jerusalem in 586 BC was accompanied by terrible destruction and much loss of life. “And all the vessels of the house of God, great and small, and the treasures of the house of the Lord, and the treasures of the king and of his friends, all these he (Nebuchadnezzar) brought to Babylon. And they burned the house of God, and broke down the wall of Jerusalem, and burned all its palaces with fire, and destroyed all its precious vessels,” (II Chronicles 36:18,19). A parallel account in II Kings 25 describes the seized vessels of the house of the Lord as including pots, snuffers, dishes for incense, firepans, bowls, etc. It is possible that some of the wealth of the temple and some of the treasures of the king’s house was hidden under the temple mount though this is mostly speculation.

If anything were hidden it would most likely have been the Ark of the Covenant, which was of great sacred importance. The Scripture suggests that everything of value was carried off to Babylon. During the captivity some of the stolen sacred gold and silver vessels from Jerusalem’s temple were used by Belshazzar on the night of his infamous feast when handwriting appeared on the wall of his palace indicating that judgment from God had fallen upon him, (Daniel 5). At the end of the 70-year captivity in Babylon the returning Jews were allowed to carry back at least some of these gold and silver sacred objects to Jerusalem, (Ezra 1:5-10). The list of returned items included 1000 basins of gold, 1000 basins of silver, 29 censers, 30 bowls of gold, 2410 bowls of silver, and other vessels of gold and silver totaling 5,469 in number.

The total number of Jews returning from this captivity was 42,360, plus 7,337 servants and 200 singers. There were 736 horses, 245 mules, 435 camels and 6720 asses in their convoy, (Ezra 2:64-67). The returning exiles set about rebuilding the temple and the walls. The second temple was modest compared to that of Solomon and was completed in 515 BC Details are given in the Books of Nehemiah and Ezra.


Jeremiah the prophet may suggested that the Ark, however, has been permanently hidden away from the plunder of man, (Jeremiah 3:16).

So, now you can imagine how a vast treasure, if the records are correct, could be hidden down in a hole, tomb or cave that is not very larger.

Did you know that $178 BILLION would fit in such a relatively small space? Most people do not. Also, when you see in mathematical terms just how small, but how heavy gold really is, one begins to understand why it takes so many people to move it and it is difficult (very difficult) to run with.

It is the shear weight of gold that has it hidden and still hidden for centuries. One would need an army to move the vast treasures of King Solomon’s Temple.

Watch Curse of Oak Island on the History Channel each Tuesday and then join us at faecbook.com/groups/GetGold and let’s discuss it openly!



In the treasure world, a large natural nugget has a precious metal weight (let’s say $10,000 for example), but if it is large enough or shaped right it can be worth 10x time the precious metal value ($100,000).  Now of course, we CANNOT value the actual Ark Of the Covenant, but if one found gold and could prove it came from King Solomon’s Temple – the collectors and historic value of such would easily be 10 to 100 times the precious metal value.

Now you might understand $178 billion is really a number that could conceivably zoom into the TRILLIONS!  Think about that!

8 Points on the 8 Pointed Star and Oak Island – ExpeditionHistory.org InvestigatingHistory.org

Thanks to the hit TV series on History Channel called Curse of Oak Island, millions of people have now been familiarized with one of the most important symbols in History.

To help you understand the REAL HISTORY of the 8 Pointed Star, you should research on your own – so below is your head start!

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To understand any symbol which has been used throughout history, one must go back to the source documents and texts.  In fact, this research was just posted by me on Facebook in the Oak Island Groups as something to consider.  Why?  A person within the group was trying to “layover” the 8 Pointed Star to the “current native population and rebellious ideas of such natives”.  In research circles this is called CULTURAL CONTEXT, but what many people actually miss, is WHICH cultural context?

Yes, different eras have different culture contexts.  What was a the cultural context a millennium ago, is NOT most assuredly the cultural context of today’s academics and anthropologists.  Why?  Think of it this way:  As an Archaeologists or Anthropologists your career is designed on being published, reviewed, quoted and awarded scholarly awards.  Now think about exactly what it takes to win academic awards?  Can you zoom to the top of your field saying “Yep, the old guys were right and I confirmed it!” OR “OGM, I have discovered a brand new meaning for this and here is what it means!”  Which one do you think gets the recognition?

You are correct – the BRAND NEW definition played over something ancient!  Now you can see the problem with symbols and the decoding of symbols.

 The 8 Pointed Star has a long and ancient history!


The roots of the eight-pointed stat symbolize the four corners of space. The eight lines are symbolic of north, south, east, and west; and time as well with the two solstices and two equinoxes.

By the middle-ages, the eight-point star is widely used as a symbol in Islamic art. It is called khatim or khatim sulayman, seal of the prophets, as in signet ring. The phrase “seal of the prophets” is also used in the Koran and has particular ideological meaning for Muslims. Moroccan zillij artisans also refer to the eight-point star as sibniyyah, sabniyyah, which is a derivative of the number seven sab’ah.  The design of the Muslim khatam was likely inspired by Jewish version, which is the Seal of Solomon. The seal of Solomon is a six point star formed by overlapping two triangles.


An Italian nobleman named Pietro della Valle discovered the use of an eight-point star as a seal in the ruins of the ancient city of Ur (~2000BC), Tell al Muqayyar, in the mid-seventeenth century. He wrote “I found on the ground some pieces of black Marble…which seem to be a kind of Seal like what the Orientals use at this day: for their Seals are only letters or written words…Amongst the other letters I discovered in a short time was…a star of eight points…”
Abraham, the shared prophet of the monotheistic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) lived in the Sumerian city of Ur. Excavations from Ur reveal early use of the eight point star, often in the form of an eight petal rosette used in jewelry or metalwork decoration.


The Sumerians used an arrangement of lines as a symbol for both star and God. The linear eight-point star represented the goddess Inanna, Sumerian queen of the heavens and Ishtar (Astarte), the Babylonian goddess known as “The Lightbringer.” An eight-point star enclosed within a circle was the symbol for the sun god. The “Babylonian star-cult is the core and the archetype of subsequent astrology.” For centuries, the Greeks believed that the morning and evening star we different entities. The Greeks recognized Venus as the morning and evening star is 400 BC, 1,500 years after Sumerians. I mention the Sumerian history to show the earliest origins of the eight-point star as a reflection of astronomical observations from one of the world’s oldest civilizations. Sumer is located in an era of the world where several civilizations, such as Babylonian, Arkadian (Semetic), Elam (proto Indo-Iranian), Egyptian, and Greek expanded and retracted.

The shape that most clearly represents Morocco in my mind’s eye is the eight-point star. It is a simple shape made by overlapping two squares. The hard-edged lines make it indicative of Moroccan patterns, which are known for their use of straight lines in contrast to the curvilinear arabesque of the Middle East. It has a feel that is both modern and ancient. What is the meaning behind this particular shape and what does it represent?

In truth, the eight-point star is not unique to Morocco. It appears in cultures around the globe. It can be found on national flags and in religious iconography. It carries various meaning associated with each culture that utilizes it. Eight is an important number in terms of realizing balance, and although it isn’t always illustrated by a star, it appears in the eight-paths in the way of Buddah and eight immortals in Chinesse tradition. Its universal symbolism is one of balance, harmony, and cosmic order. Its pattern is associated early astronomy, religion, and mysticism. It is symbolic of both stars and humanity’s earliest attempts to understand and communicate the order and unity inherent in Creation, nature’s rule.

The roots of the eight-point star symbol are in early astronomy. The eight lines are symbolic of the four corners of space (north, south, east, and west) and time (two solstices and two equinoxes).

How does the pagan symbol for God/star transform itself into an Islamic symbol? What could the connection be between the Islamic use of the eight-point star and its uses as a symbol in Sumerian culture?

astrolobe-fes-1217Articles show Sumerian history to reveal the earliest origins of the eight-point star as a reflection of astronomical observations from one of the world’s oldest civilizations. Sumer is located in an era of the world where several civilizations, such as Babylonian, Arkadian (Semetic), Elam (proto Indo-Iranian), Egyptian, and Greek expanded and retracted. It doesn’t require much imagination to imagine how these symbol migrated to other cultures and eventually made its way into Islam.

Additionally, all the monotheistic religions accommodate astrology in some way through fact that the stars are part of the Creation. Islam inherited pagan symbols along the same lines as other monotheistic religions, which share the same history and origins. Muslims accommodated ancient symbols inasmuch as they supported the Islamic view of Creation.

Moreover, astronomy plays an important role in Islam in both its expansion, obligations (pilgrimage), and daily act of worship (five times of daily prayer done directed towards Mecca). Astrology had an impact on Muslim scholars as well. As inheritors of ancient texts and avid supporters of scholarly study, Islamic scholars poured over Greek learning, which included meanings attached to the movement and position of the stars. Pythagoras, who is credited as being the first person to call himself a philosopher (lover of wisdom), is of particular important to Muslim scholars. Pythagoras developed a system of belief that centered around mathematics. Pythagoras identified the planets as being spheres rotating around a central fire. Pythagoras also influenced Plato and Aristotle and the philosophies that followed.

The following picture, taken from discoverislamicart .org is of an astrolobe in the Batha Museum in Fez. “This astrolabe includes all of the component parts of the planispheric astrolabes that were indispensable to ancient astronomers for determining prayer times and the height of the stars, and for establishing horoscopes. It is one of the first portable astrolabes in the West.”

As you can see, from the limited information posted above, there are NUMEROUS versions of the 8 Pointed Star but they ALL have a very, very ancient origin!  Now, hop on the links below and start learning the various meanings of the 8 Pointed Star!




Obsession and Passion- 50 Years of Demons and Determination a backstory of the Curse of Oak Island

Oak Island, Nova Scotia – 4,000,000 million people have watched as modern day lost history and treasure hunters have participated in the longest ongoing and most costly treasure hunt in the history of the world. One of the reasons for so many passionate viewers is a 91-year-old man who defies logic and defies the odds.


As a professional explorer and lost history hunter it was daunting the first time I was to come face to face with the 91-year-old Dan Blankenship. Not sure what my mind was expecting? Maybe my thoughts were: a tough old goat or someone totally unreasonable or too hardened to consider any other options? Who knows what was going to happen?

What I discovered on Oak Island was none of these, but something totally different and unexpected. Let me set this up properly: It is a well known published fact that Dan Blankenship and Fred Nolan can be mortal enemies at times. Sabotage, espionage and arbitrage all come to mind, when thinking of these two guys who have dedicated so much of their lives to solving the enigma, which is Oak Island and – at times- trying to one-up each other. They are locked in the ultimate personal competition.


So, needless to say, just minutes before being introduced to Dan Blankenship and shaking his hand, my palms were sweaty and my nerves were tingling with trepidation (and I consider myself a hardened tough guy). I was actually a little scared of the Blankenship.

Not in the way that some 91-year-old-treasure –hunter is going to wallop me, but in the way that a fellow doing this for 50 years might be so hardened in his thought that he would not consider any other new options. New options and theories was the exact reason I was standing there, before this legendary treasure hunter.


We should add one more bit of additional perspective to this backstory before we continue. Fifty-one years at one job is a monumental milestone in any profession. One where at the end you hope to get a huge retirement check and your proverbial gold watch, where there should be a payoff after working hard for ‘the man” and drawing that weekly paycheck while being at the whim of your “job” and “the bosses and executives”. Right?

Who does not want that huge retirement check, after the comfort of a weekly check for 50 years of loyal service? It is what most of us are used to when it comes to working jobs. Hell, isn’t that what most of our parents told us to go out and get? “A regular job with a good company, great benefits, a secure future and a solid retirement.”


But what about those dying breed of characters that don’t work jobs but work their passions? Call it obsession or just poor business judgment (depending on which side the scale you fall on to) but consider this about Dan Blankenship and his time on Oak Island:

No paycheck! No time clock! No Christmas bonus! No retirement check and no gold watch!

Now you can see from where this articles headline was derived- Obsession and Passion or Demons and Determination.


Don’t get me wrong, Dan Blankenship did have a few benefits from working on Oak Island, such as: (1) not losing his life, (2) working with his son and family, and (3) being able to work outdoors in a stunning setting. Wait – are those benefits?

So, after a long trip to Nova Scotia and knowing of “the man” for decades, my hand shot out and shook the hand of a living legend and the epitome of “never give up your dreams”.

Never give up your dreams! Now that is a worthy message to teach our children. A highly valuable message, but the message my family tended to promulgate was, “You can’t do that!” or “No you can’t!” or the latter day one I still hear at times “You are just wasting your time!”

As for me, I ignored such wise family advice and now I was standing here face to face with a man who ignored the same family advice. I was about to get an inside look – a behind the scenes look- at a living history and treasure hunting legend. NOTE TO SELF: GREAT THING I ignored my “family programming” or I never would have met this man, a man that would change my life a give me a needed breath of fresh air; a man that would give me an attitude adjustment as I rapidly approach 50 and at times think our world is headed to hell in a hand basket.

The World Health Organization and The United Nations list the ranking of the average life span of a male living in Canada at #11 and #12 respectively out of all countries. The number of years lived is 82.5 years and 80.5 years depending upon the source. Mr. Blankenship has zoomed a decade past that and shows no signs of slowing down.

Great thing Dan Blankenship moved from the USA to Canada or he would be at #34 at 79.8 years or #40 at 77.97 years.


At 91, Dan Blankenship still bears the frame and countenance of someone in his 70’s. However, HIS MIND is even more impressive. Talk about an unbelievable working computer! Dan Blankenship’s mind is one of the sharpest I have ever encountered.

Having a discussion with Mr. Blankenship is like talking to my buddy Scott Flansburg – you know – “The Human Calculator” you have seen on TV and most recently featured on “Stan Lee’s Superhumans”.

You have seen Scott run off numbers faster than you can hit the multiply key on your handy dandy calculator.   Scott holds nothing over Dan Blankenship when it comes to remembering and recalling facts, figures, steps, estimates, techniques, measurements and the who, what, when and where of ALL the activities he had conducted or taken part on at the cursed place called Oak Island.

Mr. Blankenship’s mind is nothing short of a computing miracle and he is superhuman as well, but I will share that in a moment.

According to a recent health report, the health of your brain, like the health of your body, depends on many factors. While some factors, such as your genes, are out of your control, many powerful lifestyle factors are within your sphere of influence. The six pillars of a brain-healthy lifestyle are:

  • Regular exercise
  • Healthy diet
  • Mental stimulation
  • Quality sleep
  • Stress management
  • An active social life

Several of these you can check off on Mr. Blankenship’s list as a by-product of being a treasure hunter involved in the longest ongoing treasure hunt ever, the one on Oak Island. But #4 and #5 seem at total odds with someone who has pursued an unreachable (to date) treasure, or at the very least, answer to what lay deep in the bowels of Oak Island.


The stories of his adventures often tell tales of sleepless nights “wondering and worrying” and on top of that imagine the crushing stress loads of knowing you are “right on top of a historic breakthrough” virtually every day you have worked at it! I would call that TONS OF STRESS, yet he has excelled and thrived and more importantly survived.

Speaking of survival, consider this: We have all heard of the infamous 10x. The 8-foot hole – 230-foot deep, leading into a reported “treasure chamber”. Past stories tell of dead bodies, severed hands, swords and treasure chests.

Now, consider these added statistical facts in relation to 10x and Oak Island.

10x is 230 feet, thus only 70 feet shy of a football field, goal line to goal line. 10x is 23 stories high, or in this case 23 stories straight down in a scary black hole.

Now combine those facts with the following:

10x, when originally bored was not an 8-foot round hole (NOTE: you can drive a car through 8 feet tunnel), it was a 6 inch drill hole that was widened to 27 inches later on. 19 inches is the size round of a large toilet bowl. For scale consider this, to get to into the 27-inch 10x bore hole, it needs to add just 4 inches of clearance on either side. That is tight squeeze for sure.

The real Dan Blankenship and what amazed and inspired me about this man, over and beyond his incredibly sharp mind?

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Back when 10x was a 27-inch borehole in the ground (remember not much larger around that a conventional large toilet), he entered that pipe and the depths of Oak Island. As if going 230 feet straight down in a hole bored into the unknown is not bad enough, how about these little known facts?

The 230 foot drop was a straight pipe – metal pipe – no exit, no turn around and if Dan’s wet suit would have wrinkled or his life line kinked he would have not been able to of been pulled out. Just those mere fractions of an inch added to his tight space and dissent down would have jammed him in the 10x bore pipe, forever; with no hopes of return.

Yet, fearlessly Dan entered 10x to try to solve the mystery of Oak Island, for himself, for Canada, for the World and for you and me.

As if that was not enough danger and stress added to Dan, most do not know that at any time his air hose could of kinked and cut off his air supply, which could of ended his life. Need more?

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When he finally did clear the pipe known as 10x and dropped down into the cavern below (where he reported seeing treasure chest and dead bodies), he was now suspended under a ledge of rock and the metal of the pipe itself. When he was ready to be pulled up, some on top sensed he was in trouble, and started pulling the extraction line harder and they almost tore off his suit and broke his shoulder pulling him up.

If they would of broke his shoulder he would have been wedged and died inside Oak Island.

There were other mishaps that day, and sometimes mishaps go with lost history and treasure hunting: just as the ones, which have occurred with Oak Island. There are many stories to tell, but for this one it felt right to highlight what a brave, fearless and tenacious soul Dan Blankenship is, such proves those are the traits, which enable one to pursue such a legend for 50 years of their lives.

Takes much these days to impress me, but that day and everyday since meeting the treasure hunting legend in person, I am in awe of Dan Blankenship. May we all find a passion that ignites us for 50 years and may it be so intense, fulfilling and interesting that it lengthens our lives and serves to inspire others.

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 In my opinion, Mr. Blankenship will live to see the Oak Island Mystery solved once and for all and when the final story is told; regardless of the treasure found and the possible history it rewrites, the follow up stories which will assuredly be written will tale the tale of a man, his dream and his “never give up attitude”.

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History is about to CHANGE!

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What did Hitler, Buda, Alexander the Great and Jesus have in COMMON? ExpeditionHistory.org InvestigatingHistory.org

Yes, I know very provocative question.  But Hitler, Buda, Alexander the Great and Jesus DID have a common connection.

That connection was ancient symbology and the symbol was a Swastika.  Long before Hitler turned the Swastika into a universal symbol, for evil, death and hatred, the Swastika was a symbol of Love, Enlightenment and the Quest for Truth!



The earliest known swastika was found in 10,000 B.C. in the Ukraine, carved on mammoth ivory.

Its meaning has been a good one for thousands of years. However, Adolf Hitler appropriated it in the 20th century, establishing its association with tragedy, death, and destruction.

The symbol is found not only in one ancient civilization, but in ancient civilizations all over the world, bespeaking its deep connection with humanity and human culture.

Aztecs and Mayans used the symbol on burial mounds, clothing and jewelry. In Europe, such symbols can be found in Roman catacombs, in churches, on plaza stones, and graves.

The word swastika is Sanskrit: swa means “higher self,” asti means “being,” and ka is a suffix. The word may be understood as “being with higher self.” It is also known as srivatsa.


It has an especially strong connection to Buddhism in India, which was then transmitted to China. The srivatsa is often found on Buddha sculptures, and it is believed to be a sign displayed by

Buddhas to the people who first depicted it—a symbol with profound and heavenly meanings. It has been understood over the ages as a symbol of good luck, a symbol of purity, and other positive attributes.

Hitler sought to connect the symbol’s power and purity to his doctrine of establishing a “pure” race.

The shadow cast on the symbol by the Nazis is slowly being lifted. The Jewish Virtual Library, an American-Israeli Enterprise, has addressed the history of the Swastika positively.


The swastika (卐 or 卍) (Sanskrit: स्वस्तिक), (also known as the gammadion cross) is a symbol that generally takes the form of an equilateral cross, with its four legs bent at 90 degrees.

It is a symbol among the ancient Celts, Indians, and Greeks, as well as in Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, and Nazism, among other cultures and religions.

The word swastika derives from the Sanskrit roots su (“Good”), asti (“to be”), and ka (making) The older term gammadion cross derives from its appearance, which is identical to four Greek gamma letters affixed to each other.

GhanaSwastikaIts use in India dates back to the Indus Valley Civilization city of Harappa, and came to represent Vishnu in Hinduism. In Chinese Taoism, the swastika is a symbol of eternity.

For Tibetan Buddhism, it is emblematic of the element of Earth.

It is a common practice for Hindus to draw Swastika symbols on the doors and entrances to their houses during festivals, which is believed to symbolize an invitation to goddess Lakshmi.

Swastika_iranThe symbol has a long history in Europe reaching back to antiquity. In modern times, following a brief surge of popularity as a good luck symbol in Western culture, a swastika was adopted as a symbol of the Nazi Party of Germany in 1920, who used the swastika as a symbol of the Aryan race. A right-facing 45° rotated swastika was incorporated into the flag of the Nazi Party, which was made the state flag of Germany during the Nazi era, after Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933.

Hence in many Western countries the swastika is stigmatized as being associated with Nazism and related concepts like antisemitism, hatred, violence, death, and murder.

Notably, the swastika has been outlawed in Germany and other countries if used as a symbol of Nazism in certain instances. Many modern white nationalist and Neo-Nazi groups such as the Russian National Unity use stylized swastikas or similar symbols.




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Treasure that rewrites History? Why calling it FAKE stops the DEBATE! ExpeditionHistory.org InvestigatingHistory.org

fuenta manga bowlNowadays, want to just shut some one down? Call them a racists!

Have you ever noticed how calling someone that word (which no one wants to be associated with) shuts down ALL discussion?

Well, the same short-shighted and frankly chicken-poop way to stop a debate about a discovery of something Ancient yet unexplained, is to…


This is standard practice among many academic circles, yet this is getting harder and harder to scream (thank G-od) with

all the advances in technology that are actually PROVING some formerly labels FAKES to be FANTASTIC FINDS!

Here is a great example:


Before I get into all the details and facts, ask yourself a few questions:

1.  How can someone call FAKE if they NEVER have inspected the artifact in question?

2.  How can they call it a fake, if they have never interviewed the surviving discoverers?

3. How can they call it a FAKE when there are actual Sumerian Symbols which CAN be decoded, but this artifact was found in in the 1910’s and was made public in 1958 and Sumerian was not fully decoded until 1923, and was not available at the academic level until some 30 years later (certainly not at the public level for study)

4.  Ask questions and the FAKE CALLERS facts and reasoning may fall apart!


The Fuente Magna bowl was found accidentally by a worker from the CHUA Hacienda, property of the Manjon family located near Lake Titicaca about 75-80 km from the city of La Paz, Bolivia (see Photo). The site where it was found had not been studied for artifacts previously. The Fuente Magna is beautifully engraved in earthen-brown both inside and out and bears zoological motifs and anthropomorphic characters within (Please see Bernardo Biados for further detail).

The Bolivian archeologist, don Max Portugal-Zamora, learned of the Fuente Magna’s existence around 1958-1960 from his friend Pastor Manjon. Both gave the site the name it bears today, “Fuente Magna” (see Spanish account)

A controversy arose about the cuneiform script on the Fuente Magna. Dr. Alberto Marini, translated it and reported that it was Sumerian.. After a careful examination of the Fuente Magna, linear script Dr. Clyde A. Winters determined that it was probably Proto-Sumerian, which is found on many artifacts from in Mesopotamia. An identical script was used by the Elamites called Proto-Elamite.

Dr. Winters believed that researchers had been unable to read the writing because they refused to compare Proto-Elamite and Proto-Sumerian writing with other writing systems used in 3000-2000 BC. He compared the writing to the Libyco-Berber writing used in the Sahara 5000 years ago. This writing was used by the Proto-Dravidians (of the Indus Valley), Proto-Mande , Proto-Elamites and Proto-Sumerians.

These people formerly lived in Middle Africa, until the extensive desertification of the Sahara began after 3500 BC. A Mr. Rawlinson, was sure that the Sumerians had formerly lived in Africa, and he used Semitic and African languages spoken in Ethiopia to decipher the cuneiform writing. Rawlins called the early dwellers of Mesopotamia: Kushites, because he believed that the ancestors of these people were the Western Kushites of Classical literature.

Winters noted that the Libyco-Berber script couldn’t be read using the Berber language, because the Berbers only entered Africa around the time the Vandals conquered much of North Africa. Although the Libyco-Berber script cannot be read using the Berber language, it can be read using the Mande language. This is because the Proto-Mande formerly lived in Libya, until they migrated from this area into the Niger valley of West Africa.

The Vai script has signs similar to the Libyco-Berber, Indus valley, Linear A of Crete, Proto-Elamite and Proto-Sumerian signs. The Vai people spoke a Mande language.

Using the phonetic values of the Vai script, Dr. Winters has been able to decipher the Indus Valley and Linear A writing. The Sumerian language is closely related to the Dravidian and Mande languages, and the Proto-Sumerian , Libyco-Berber and Vai scripts are similar. Thus, it is possible to read the script on the Fuente Magna by using the phonetic values of the Vai script. Once Winters had transliterated the Fuente Magna signs, he was able to translate the inscription using the Sumerian language.



The universe is full of mysteries that challenge our current knowledge. In “Beyond Science” Epoch Times collects stories about these strange phenomena to stimulate the imagination and open up previously undreamed of possibilities. Are they true? You decide.

The Fuenta Magna is a large stone vessel, resembling a libation bowl, that was found in 1958 near Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. It features beautifully engraved anthropomorphic characters, zoological motifs characteristic of the local culture, and, more surprisingly, two types of scripts—a proto-Sumerian ancient alphabet and a local language of the ancient Pukara, forerunner of the Tiahuanaco civilization. Often referred to as “the Rosetta Stone of the Americas,” the stone vessel is one of the most controversial artifacts in South America as it raises questions about whether there may have been a connection between the Sumerians and the ancient inhabitants of the Andes, located thousands of miles away.

The ancient relic was discovered accidentally by a farmer working on a private estate owned by the Manjon family. The owners subsequently delivered it to the city hall of La Paz in 1960 in return for land near the capital. Around the same time, Bolivian archaeologist Max Portugal Zamora learned of its existence and attempted, unsuccessfully, to decipher the unusual inscriptions, not least because he failed to recognize that the writing upon the bowl was a type of cuneiform text dating back some 5,000 years.

The Fuente Magna bowl remained in storage in the Museo de los Metales Preciosos (“Museum of Precious Metals”) for approximately 40 years, until two Bolivian researchers, Argentine Bernardo Biados and archaeologist Freddy Arce, sought to investigate the origins of the mysterious relic. They were eventually put in contact with Maximiliano, a 92-year-old local who, after seeing a picture of the bowl, claimed it was once in his possession. Not realizing its significance, Maximiliano admitted that he had used the bowl to feed his pigs.

fuenta-magna-detail-2-480x308The two researchers took detailed photographs of the bowl and sent them to epigraphist Dr. Clyde Ahmed Winters, in the hope that he may be able to decipher the inscriptions. Dr. Winters, an ancient languages expert, compared the inscriptions to Libyco-Berber writing used in the Sahara approximately 5,000 years ago. The writing was used by the Proto-Dravidians (of the Indus Valley), Proto-Mande , Proto-Elamites, and Proto-Sumerians. Dr. Winters, in his article “Decipherment of the Cuneiform Writing on the Fuente Magna Bowl,” concluded that the writing on the bowl “was probably Proto-Sumerian,” and offered the following translation:

“Approach in the future (one) endowed with great protection the Great Nia. [The Divine One Nia(sh) to] establish purity, establish gladness, establish character. (This favorable oracle of the people to establish purity and to establish character [for all who seek it]). [Use this talisman (the Fuente bowl)] To sprout [oh] diviner the unique advice [at] the temple. The righteous shrine, anoint (this) shrine, anoint (this) shrine; The leader takes an oath [to] establish purity, a favorable oracle (and to) establish character. [Oh leader of the cult,] open up a unique light [for all], [who] wish for a noble life.”

This translations suggests that the Fuente Magna bowl may have been used to make libations to the Goddess Nia to request fertility. The figure on the Fuente Magna, which appears to be in a “Goddess pose,” with open arms and legs spread, is believed to support Dr Winters’ translation.

If Dr. Winters’ translation is correct, this has major implications for our understanding of both Sumerian civilization and the ancient culture of Bolivia. Researcher Yuri Leveratto aptly poses the question: “How is it possible that proto-Sumerian inscriptions were found in a bowl that has been found near the Titicaca Lake, 3,800 meters [2.3 miles] above sea level, thousands of kilometers far away from the area where the Sumerian people used to live?”

According to Bernardo Biados, the Fuente Magna was most likely crafted by Sumerian people who settled in Bolivia sometime after 2,500 B.C. According to Biados, the Sumerians were known to sail to the distant Indian subcontinent and some Sumerian ships may have made their way around South Africa and entered one of the currents in the area that lead across the Atlantic from Africa to South America. It is possible that some chose to stay and explore into the Andes, perhaps searching for areas high on the plateau of Bolivia where food was being produced. Yuri Leveratto says, “the Sumerian culture influenced the people of the plateau, not only from a religious point of view, but also in the language. In fact, some linguists have found many similarities between the proto-Sumerian and Aymara languages.”

However, this perspective, and indeed the initial translation work of Dr. Winters has not been without its critics. Jason Colavito, a known skeptic and “debunker,” suggests that there is only a small degree of correlation between the script on the bowl and Proto-Sumerian characters. Colavito points out that the bowl has a highly problematic provenance, and may simply be a hoax. Biados says this is incorrect, citing the overwhelming support from major portions of the academic community.

It is clear that the Fuente Magna bowl remains a matter of contention between academics. It is hoped that further archaeological and linguistic research may help to unravel the story behind this mysterious artifact, as doing so may help to expand our understanding of the great civilizations of our past and their influence throughout the world.

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